Structure and perspective are connected - understanding how perspective works will help you draw three-dimensional objects. For general drawing, you only need the basics. If you enjoy perspective drawing, it can be fun to experiment with!

# Draw One-Point Perspective

## A box in one-point perspective.

Here's a photograph of a box on a table. The line across the back is not the horizon line - it's the edge of the table, and is lower than my eye level, and so, lower than the horizon. If we continue the lines made by the edges of the box, they meet at a point above the table - at eye level. If we could see into the distance, it would be on the horizon, (provided the camera is looking straight ahead, and not tilted). The front edges of the box are quite parallel.

**A box in two-point perspective.**

· Here's a photograph of a box on a table. As with the one-point example, the line across the back is not the horizon line - it's the edge of the table, and is lower than my eye level, and so, lower than the horizon. If we continue the lines made by the edges of the box, they meet at two points above the table - at eye level.

· Note the extra space I've had to add around the image to fit the vanishing points on the page - when you draw two-point perspective, close vanishing points make your image look compressed, as though through a wide-angle lens. For best results, use an extra-long ruler, and use wide paper from a roll, or tape extra sheets to each side. (You can also tape your drawing to the table, and place your vanishing points on a piece of tape placed out to the side.)

**Find the Center of a Square or Rectangle in Perspective Step 1**

· This quick and easy step by step shows you how to find the center of a square or rectangle in perspective. Once you've learned this simple trick, you can use it to evenly space building features like tiles, bricks and windows, or position a door or roof.

· First of all, draw your square or rectangle in perspective. This might represent a floor, or wall, the side of a building or box. This method works for both one-point and two-point perspective.

· Then, draw two lines joining the corners of the box diagonally as shown. Where they cross is the center of your rectangle.

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**Start with the Horizon**

· Once you're confident with drawing basic boxes in one-point perspective and two-point perspective, drawing a pyramid is quite easy.

· Begin with a horizon line, vanishing point, and draw the front edge of the pyramid base. Draw your vanishing lines, then add the back edge of the pyramid base, just judging by eye how far back it ought to go. Make sure it is parallel to your horizon line. I've begun two examples above.

**Draw the vertical center of the pyramid**

**Draw the pyramid sides**

**Finishing the pyramid drawing**

· **Drawing Ellipses in Perspective:**

Use one of those ellipse guide templates! The are available from stationary and art stores. The ellipses on the template are circles in varying degrees of perspective. Just line up the little marks with your orthogonals (vanishing lines) and hey presto! A circle in perspective.

**Constructing a Roof in 2-Point Perspective:**

· First, draw a box in 2-point perspective for the building.

1. Draw two diagonals joining opposite corners at each end of the building.

2. Draw a vertical from the intersection of the diagonals to the desired height of the roof.

3. Draw the slope of the roof from the top to the front corners.

4. Draw the orthogonal (vanishing line) from the top of the roof to the vanishing point in the direction of the rear of the building.

5. Draw a vertical from intersection of the diagonals drawn on the rear of the building to the orthogonal at the top of the roof.

6. Draw the slope of the roof from the back corner of the building to the intersection of the orthogonal and the central vertical you just drew.

**Natural Perspective:**

To look realistic, vanishing points need to be quite far apart. If you can't fit them on your page, try using thumbtacks and a string 'ruler' on a large table or wall. Kids, ask mom first!

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